Techniques in Translation -
1) When a passage is transiated from English to a vomacular language or vice versa, the meaning should not be changed.
2) There are several english legal terms, such as privacy, divorce, widower. blackma media revolver, gunpowder, etc. These tems are not found in Indian languages. The student has to take such words as they are.
3) Language is the instrument of expressing thoughts. Each language has it own idioms, nativity, style etc. They are its own. These qualities should not be lost ir transiation
4) Active voice and passive voice - In English majority of sentences are found in passive volce pass does may
1) Ravan was killed by Ram.
2) Apple was eaten by Mayur
in Indian languages, such type of passive voice use is not found, we are acquainted in saying viz.
Ram killed Ravan, and
Mayur eat apple
Therefore the student should not try to translate all the sentences in passive volce in vemacularlanguage. It looks not good. The student should use passiv voice construction in English, anaactive voice construction in vermacular language n the similar way, in regional language, the sentence should not be written half the sentence in active voice and half the sentence in passive voice
Example - It is reported in news that children were sold in the foreign countries.
5) Tenses - In English, there are twelve tenses present, past and future tenses. Present tenses has four forms Ie. simple present, present continuous, present perfect, present perfect continuous. Past Tense has four forms. Ie simple past, past continuous, past perfect, past perfect continuous. Future Tense nas the four forms, simple future future continuous, future parfect and future perfect continuous.
In Indian languages,There are only three tenses, viz, prasent, past, future. Therefore, tha student should naticethis change and construct sentences in his mother tongue according to its usage.
6) Foreignlanguage - English is foreign language. It is not our mother tongue. The standard which we has inour mother-tongue couid not be achieved in foreign language such as in English.
7) Not poetical- The transiation should not imitate poetical or classical in English or in vemacular language.The construction should be so simple like that of a daily news in Pri CO div the an ha paper.
8)Complex and compound sentences sentences are found very often. Especially in Law, such type of construction is very common. Sometimes, paragraph itself is written without breakages.When a passagi is translated into regional languago, the student should cut complex andcompound. sentences, and trom simpie sentences: However, at the same time he shouid seethat the meaning should not be disturbed.
9) Subject and Verb - In English, subject stands at one place and verb comes in the middle and lastly the objact. Example - Ram killed Ravan, . In Law, Several legal phrases are coupled, and makes it complex and compound sentences. While transiating into vernacular language, care must be taken that the subject should comes nearer to the verb, This is the basic difference between English and Indian Languages.
Example - Jaylalita, president of AIADMK said "We withdraw our support to B.J.P. Governmant as it adopted the policies against the integrity of the nation
10) Ambiguous terma - The student should not use ambiguous terms, which give double meaning or different meanings at different contexts. It spoils the meaning of the passage
11) Number of words - Pay the attention on the number of words whether the passage is in English or in regional language. The words used in translation also does not exceed more than the original. In extra-ordinary circumstances, This rule may be taken into light.
12) No commentary - The passage given in the examination is to test your ability in translation you should translate it without causing damage to its original meaning. You should not comment with your own opinions.
13) Verification - After translation too, the student is advised to read it once or twice, and correct if any mistakes are found,
14) Names of persona, historical places etc. - The name of persons, historical places etc. shouldbe used as thay given. For example, charminar is a famous construction in Hyderabad. It means "four poles", The words "four poles" should not be used for charminar".
15) Reading - English is not our mother tongue. Before starting translation from English to regional language the student should read the passage four or five times and break the sentences with pencil. He is advised to start writing after understanding entire passage perfectly.