Updated: Feb 24, 2022
KYOTO SUMMIT 1997
Kyoto Environmental Summit On Global Warming (1.12.1997 to 11:12-1997) (Kyoto Protocol)
The Convention on Climate Change had decided that a review conference would be held after ﬁve years. Hence, a conference on climate change was held at Kyoto in Japan to review the progress made in ﬁve years and to chalk out plans, and to ﬁx strategies and objectives for the future. More than 150 countries participated. One of the major decisions at the summit was the target set for 24 industrialized countries for reducing the emission of greenhouse gases from the 1990 levels.
It is universally recognized that methane, chlorofluorocarbons, carbon-di-oxide, and other industrial gases are causing the greenhouse effects leading to earth warming and adverse effect in the climate all over the world.
In the Earth Summit of 1992, conducted on climate change or greenhouse emission, it was decided that a review conference would be convened after a period of five years. Accordingly, a conference on climate change was convened at Kyoto in Japan during December 1 to 11, 1997 wherein the progress made during the past five years was reviewed and future plans were chalked out by fixing strategies and objectives for the future. The Conference was attended by representatives of more than 150 countries.
Alter vigorous and untiring efforts of eleven days, the conference succeeded in taking certain solid decisions, At the end of the Conference, it was decided that the degree of emissions of the green-house gases prevalent in 1990 would be reduced by 8%, 7%, and 6% by European Union, America, and Japan, respectively, between 2008 and 2012. Similarly, targets of 21 other industrial countries were also fixed with similar reduction requirements. Consequently, Kyoto Protocol came enforcement. It required ratification by at least 55 members of the UN Framework Convention on climate control. For example, the target for the European Union was to reduce emission by 8 % from the 1990 levels, the USA by 7 %, and Japan by 6 %. The 142 targets for the other countries were an average reduction of 5 %. These targets were to be achieved by 2012.
In this conference, some of the developing countries opined that their economic conditions do not permit them to accept such commitments. One of the reasons for this was that of the less per capita emissions of greenhouse gases in these countries which are far less than in industrial countries. Therefore, the developing countries, including India and China, are exempted from such commitments.
Developing countries like India and China were exempted from such commitments because their per capita emission was much lower than that in industrialized countries. Terms, each a signiﬁcant development was the protocol on the trading of emission credits among all countries as part of the clean environment mechanism. In simple country is entitled to a certain level of emission. Kyoto to allow trade between countries who don't use up their entitlement and this was aimed to ensure that developed countries implemented and paid for clean technology in developing countries. The protocol was signed by 120 countries. I was decided at those who exceeded it.