Earth Summit 2002/Johannesburg Declaration
Earth Summit was held in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 26th August to 4th September 2002.
The Earth Summit 2002 was the consequential follow-up action of the decision of the 1992 Earth Summit held at Rio-de-Janeiro and the Kyoto Summit on Global Warming 1997. Nothing much has happened after Rio to justify such a big event, says Ashok Khosla, President of the Delhi-based Development Alternatives. Shri Khosla, who played a major role in the non-governmental movement at Rio in 1992, decided not to attend the Earth Summit 2002. A host of other leaders also did not attend the summit, inter alia, for the reason of lack of clear agenda.
While the 1992 Rio Summit witnessed 130 heads of the States present, the response to Johannesburg Summit was reportedly lukewarm, for less than 100 leaders were expected to attend it. Prominent absentees include U.S. President and the Indian Prime Minister.
Events of Earth Summit 2002
The developed countries agreed to spend 0.7% of their GNP towards development assistance at the 1992 Rio Summit. Instead of increasing, the said figure has come down to 0.22% presently. The latest statistics reported in the context of the 2002 Earth Summit -provide that air pollution has become a major killer with 3 million people dying every year., Carbon emissions are doubled in 3 decades thereby making global warming a serious threat. 40% of the world population is facing a chronic shortage of freshwater for daily needs. Contaminated water is killing about 2.2 million people every year. Since 1990, 2.4% of the world's forests have been destroyed with a loss of 90,000 sq.kms., every year. 2/3rd of the world's farmlands suffer from soil degradation. About 800 species of wildlife have become non-existent and 1/5th of the 10,000 water species are extinct. In North America 10 fish species were extinct in the 1990s. 70% of the 9,946 known bird species have declined in numbers. The global population rose from 2.5 billion in 1950 to 6 billion in 2000 and it is expected that in the coming ten years, the world will have to feed and house another billion people.
The Johannesburg Declaration On Sustainable.Development, 2002
The following is a brief sketch of the text of the Johannesburg Declaration:-
From our Origins to the Future
1. We, the representatives of the peoples of the world, assembled at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South Africa from 2-4 September 2002, reaffirm our commitment to sustainable development.
2. We commit ourselves to build a humane, equitable and caring global society cognizant of the need for human dignity for all.
3. At the beginning of this Summit, the children of the world spoke to us in a simple yet clear voice that the future belongs to them, and accordingly challenged all of us to ensure that through our actions they will inherit a world free of the indignity and indecency occasioned by poverty, environmental degradation and patterns of unsustainable development.
4. As part of our response to these children, who represent our collective future, all of us, coming from every corner of the world, informed by different life experiences, are united and moved by a deeply-felt sense that we urgently need to create a new and brighter world of hope.
5. Accordingly, we assume a collective responsibility to advance strengthen the interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars of sustainable development economic development, social development, and environmental protection at local, national, regional, and global levels.
6. From this Continent the Cradle of Humanity we declare, through Plan of Implementation and this Declaration, our responsibility to one the another, to the greater community of life and to our children.
7. Recognizing that humankind is at a crossroads, we have united in a common resolve to make a determined effort to respond positively to the need to produce a practical and visible plan that should bring about poverty eradication and human development.
From Stockholm to Rio de Janeiro to Johannesburg
8. Thirty years ago, in Stockholm, we agreed on the urgent need to respond to the problem of environmental deterioration. Ten years ago, at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, we agreed that the protection of the environment and social and economic development are fundamental to sustainable development, based on the Rio Principles. To achieve such development, we adopted the global program, Agenda 21, and the Rio Declaration, to which we reaffirm our commitment. The Rio Summit was a significant milestone that sct a new agenda for sustainable development.
9. Between Rio and Johannesburg the world's nations met in several major conferences under the guidance of the United Nations, including the Monterrey Conference on Finance for Development, as well as the Doha Ministerial Conference. These conferences defined 9. for the world a comprehensive vision for the future of humanity.
10. At the Johannesburg Summit we achieved much in bringing together a rich tapestry of peoples and views in a constructive search for a common path, towards a world that respects and implements the vision of sustainable development. Johannesburg also confirmed that significant progress has been made towards achieving a global consensus and partnership amongst all the people of our planet.
The Challenges We Face
11. We recognize that poverty eradication, changing consumption and production patterns, and protecting and managing the natural resource base for economic and social development are overarching essential requirements of, and for sustainable objectives development.
12. The deep fault line that dividend human society between the rich and the poor and the ever-increasing gap between the developed and developing worlds pose a major threat to global prosperity, security, and stability.
13.The global environment continues to suffer. Loss of biodiversity continues, fish stocks continue to be depleted, desertification claims more and more fertile land, the adverse effects of climate change are. already evident, natural disasters are devastating and developing countries more vulnerable, and air, water, and marine pollution continue to rob millions of a decent life.
14. Globalization has added a new dimension to these challenges. The rapid integration of markets, mobility of capital, and significant increases in investment flows around the world have opened new challenges and opportunities for development. But the benefits and costs of globalization are unevenly distributed, with developing countries facing special difficulties in meeting this challenge.
15. We risk the entrenchment of these global disparities and unless we act in a manner that fundamentally changes their lives, the poor of the world may lose confidence in their representatives and the democratic systems to which we remain committed, seeing their representatives as nothing more than sounding brass or tinkling cymbals.
Our Commitment to Sustainable Development
16. We are determined to ensure that our rich diversity, which is our collective strength, will be used for the constructive partnership for change and for the achievement of the common goal of sustainable development.
17. Recognizing the importance of building human solidarity, we urge the promotion of dialogue and cooperation among the world's civilizations and peoples, irrespective of race, disabilities, religion, language, culture and tradition.
18. We welcome the Johannesburg Summit focus on the indivisibility of human dignity and are resolved through decisions on targets, timetables, and partnerships to speedily increase access to basic requirements such as clean water, sanitation, adequate shelter, energy, health care, food security, and the protection of biodiversity. At the same time, we will work together to assist one another to have access to financial resources, benefit from the opening of markets, ensure capacity building, use modern technology to bring about. development, and make sure that there is technology transfer, human .resource development, education, and training to banish forever underdevelopment.
19. we reaffirm our pledge to place particular focus on and give priority attention to the fight against the worldwide condition that poses severe threats to the sustainable development of our people. Among attention to, the fight against the worldwide conditions that pose chronic diseases, in particular, HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis.
20. We are committed to ensuring 'that women's empowerment and emancipation, and gender equality are integrated into all activities encompassed within Agenda 21. the Millennium Development Goals and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation.
21. we recognize the reality that global society has the means and is endowed with the resources to address the challenges of poverty eradication and sustainable development confronting all humanity. Together we will take extra steps to ensure that these available resources are used to the benefit of humanity.
22. In this regard, to contribute to the achievement of our development goals and targets, we urge developed countries that have not done so to make concrete efforts towards the internationally agreed levels of Official Development Assistance.
23. We welcome and support the emergence of stronger regional groupings and alliances, such as the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), to promote regional cooperation, improved international co-operation and promoțe sustainable development.
24. We shall continue to pay special attention to the developmental needs of Small Island Developing States and the Least Developed Countries.
25 We reaffirm the vital role of the indigenous peoples in sustainable development.
26. We recognize sustainable development requires perspective and broad-based participation in policy formulation, decision-making, and implementation at all levels. As social partners, we will continue to work for stable partnerships with all major groups respecting the independent, important roles
27. We agree that in pursuit of their legitimate activities the private sector, both large and small companies, have a duty to contribute to the evolution of equitable and sustainable communities and societies. a long-term each of these.
28.We also agree to provide assistance to increase income-generating employment opportunities, taking into account the International Labour Organization (ILO) Declaration of Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work.