Israel-Palestine Dispute 1917 to 2023
When and how did the fight between these two countries start?
The dispute between Israel and Palestine has deepened again. What is the reason for this and when did it start? It is being said that Hamas has attacked Israel with a total of 5 thousand rockets. After this incident, Israel has declared a state of war alert on record. Many Israeli citizens have died and many are injured in this attack. The thing to note is that there is a geo-political angle also hidden behind this terrorist attack by Hamas. Now many people will not know what geo-politics angle of politics .
what is geopolitics angle
Geo' means Earth, here it means the influence of geographical factors. The word 'Politics' is related to the interest based activities associated with the governance of a country or state or region. Geopolitics refers to the effects of geography on power relations in international relations. The term geopolitics was originally coined by Swedish political scientist Rudolf Kjellén in 1899. It was used during World War. (1918–39) and came into use throughout the world during the latter. Geopolitics is the geographical cause of international politics. Political events started from the geography of the region concerned. It is the study of the influence of geography/geographical factors (location, territory, climate, natural resources, demographic factors, topography, etc.) on politics and international relations. Later, many German writers such as Karl Haushofer (1869–1946), Erich Ernst Hermann Lautensch and Otto Maul. In 1923, Karl Haushofer founded the Zeitschrift für Geopolitik Geopolitik, which was later used in propaganda for Nazi Germany. The study of the effects of geography on international politics and international relations is called geopolitics. In other words, geopolitics is a method of studying foreign policy that works to understand, explain and predict international political activities. This term geopolitics was first used by Rudolf Zelen in 1899. The objective of geopolitics is to study the relationship between states and the impact of geographical dimensions of their mutual situation. There are many historical phases of its study, such as the competition in Asia between British imperialism and Russian Tsarism during the colonial period, then the competition between American imperialism and the Soviet Union during the Cold War period, etc. There are many such examples, which can be called important phases of geopolitics.
Recently, a report came out regarding the defense pact between America and Saudi Arabia, in which Saudi Arabia is planning a deal with America. It is mentioned in this defense pact that America will guarantee the security of Saudi Arabia. In return, Saudi Arabia will back down from its demands regarding Palestine. According to many media reports, America is very eager about this deal and is going to accept it soon.
Just a few days before this deal, Hamas attacked Israel with five thousand rockets. This attack has pushed Israel towards war in the Gaza Strip. Not only this, this war will also put pressure on the defense pact between America and Saudi Arabia. Many meanings of this attack are emerging in global politics. Israel and Palestine are two countries whose dispute has been going on for a long time. Many agreements were made to establish peace and end differences between the two countries, but the outcome was nothing special. Today, through this article, we will tell you about all the reasons due to which the dispute between these two countries increased day by day. There has been a clash between Israel and Hamas once again. Hamas has claimed to have fired 5000 rockets at Israel from the Gaza Strip.
Israel has also responded to the Palestinian extremist organization Hamas. An encounter is taking place between Israeli soldiers and Hamas fighters near the Gaza Strip. Israel has started attacking the Gaza Strip. This is not the first time that there has been a war between Israel and the Palestinian extremist organization Hamas. There was a war between the two in 2021 also.
What is the Israel-Palestine dispute?
The conflict between Israel and Palestine dates back to the fall of the Ottoman Empire. During this period, the widespread influence of nationalism was being seen throughout Europe. Many countries were divided into pieces. The wave of nationalism was uniting them. Countries like Italy and Germany were uniting in the name of nationalism. Its influence was also seen among the Jews. The feeling of nationalism also arose among the Jewish people. He had a longing to go back and settle in his holy place. This is where the Zionist movement begins. In the 19th century, this holy land of the Jews was known as Palestine. During this period, Jews were scattered throughout Europe. They were exploited a lot in Europe. During the Zionist movement, initially there was a small-scale migration of Jews towards Palestine. comes after this.......
The period of the First World War. The Balfour Declaration came in 1917. Many people believe that the Balfour Declaration was the main reason that gave rise to the Israel-Palestine conflict.
In 1917, during World War I, the Ottoman Empire was on the verge of defeat. At that time Britain's Foreign Minister Sir Arthur Balfour issued a declaration. In this declaration it was indicated that Britain would give the Jews their holy land Palestine and get them resettled there. On the other hand, Britain secretly signed the Sykes-Picot Agreement with France and Russia. Under this, he divided the entire Middle East into different parts and decided which country would go to whose part after the end of the First World War. In this he kept Palestine in his share. Syria and Jordan were given to France. Some part of Türkiye went to Russia. On one hand, Britain collectively said that we would give Palestine to the Jews. On the other hand, he secretly kept this share with himself under the Sykes-Pico Agreement.
Balfour Declaration: The foundation of the Israel–Palestine conflict was laid in 1917 when the then British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour expressed Britain's official support for a "National Home" for the Jews in Palestine under the Balfour Declaration.
Creation of Palestine: Unable to stop Arab and Jewish violence, Britain withdrew its forces from Palestine in 1948 and left it to the newly created United Nations to settle the competing claims.
Arab-Israeli War (1948): Following the Jewish declaration of independence of Israel in 1948, neighboring Arab states began attacking Israel. At the end of these wars Israel controlled approximately 50% more territory than the UN partition plan required.
UN Partition Plan: According to this plan, Jordan gained control of the West Bank and the holy sites of Jerusalem and Egypt gained control of the Gaza Strip but it failed to resolve the Palestinian crisis which led to the formation of the Palestine Liberation Organization in the year 1964. Happened.
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): The Palestine Liberation Organization was established with the aim of liberating Palestine from Israeli and Jewish domination and establishing the dominance of Muslim states over Arab states. The United Nations granted observer status to PLO in the year 1975. And recognized the right of Palestinians to self-determination.
Six-Day War: In the 1967 war, the Israeli army captured the Golan Heights from Syria, the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip from Egypt.
Camp David Accords (1978): The US-brokered "Framework for Peace in the Middle East" provided a platform for peace talks between Israel and its neighboring states and a solution to the "Palestinian problem", but its usefulness was negligible. doing.
Rise of Hamas: Year 1987: Hamas was a violent branch of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, which wanted to fulfill its agenda through violent jihad.
Hamas: America considers it a terrorist organization. In 2006, Hamas won the Palestinian Authority legislative elections and in 2007, it separated Fatah from Gaza, also dividing the Palestinian movement geographically.
1987: Tensions reach a peak in areas under their control of the West Bank and Gaza, resulting in the First Intifada (Palestinian uprising). It turned into a small war between Palestinian militants and Israeli forces.
Oslo Accords: Year 1993: Under the Oslo Accords, Israel and the PLO agreed to officially recognize each other and stop violent activities. The Oslo Accords also established the Palestinian Authority, which granted limited autonomy to the Gaza Strip and parts of the West Bank.
Year 2005: Israel started deporting Jews from Gaza area. However Israel maintained tight surveillance of all border crossings.
Year 2012: Palestine's status in the United Nations is now that of "non-member observer state".
Israel's Territorial Disputes With Neighboring Countries:
West Bank: The West Bank is located between Israel and Jordan. Ramallah is one of the major cities of the West Bank, being the de facto administrative capital of Palestine. Israel captured it in the 1967 war and has also established settlements there in the last few years.
Gaza: The Gaza Strip is located between Israel and Egypt. Israel took control of it after 1967, but relinquished control of Gaza City and day-to-day administration of most of the area during the Oslo Peace Process. Israel unilaterally removed Jewish settlements from the Gaza Strip in 2005, but it continues to control access by other states.
Golan Heights: Israel captured the Golan Heights from Syria during the 1967 war and completely occupied it in 1981. Recently the United States has officially recognized Jerusalem and the Golan Heights as part of Israel.
Relations Between Israel And India:
India's stance on the Israel-Palestine conflict: India recognized Israel in the year 1950 but is also the first non-Arab country to recognize the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) as the sole representative of Palestine. India was one of the first countries to grant statehood to Palestine in 1988. In recent times, India is seen moving towards de-hyphenation policy.
De-hyphenation policy: India's policy on the world's longest-running Israel-Palestine conflict has varied from being clearly pro-Palestine for the first four decades to balancing it with its friendly relations with Israel in the last three decades. In recent years, India's position is also being seen as pro-Israel. Additionally, India believes in a two-state solution regarding the Israel-Palestine conflict and wants to achieve a peaceful settlement between the two countries. Proposes the right of self-determination for countries.
Impact of the attack on Israel-Saudi Arabia relations:
One reason for Hamas' attack on Israel can be considered to be to disrupt efforts to bring together Saudi Arabia and Israel as well as other countries that want to make their relations friendly with Israel. The world at large wants a peaceful solution. There is a need to come together for this but the reluctance of the Israeli government and other concerned parties has further aggravated the issue. A balanced approach will help maintain favorable relations with Arab countries as well as Israel. Recent normalization agreements in relations between Israel and the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Sudan and Morocco, called the Abraham Accords, Let's display. All regional powers should envisage peace between the two countries on the lines of the Abraham Accords. India is currently a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council for 2021-22 and has been re-elected to the Human Rights Council for 2022-24. Was. India should use these multilateral forums to act as a mediator to resolve the Israel-Palestine issue.
What is the geography of Israel-Palestine?
Israel is a Jewish country present in the Middle East. The West Bank is present in its eastern part, where the 'Palestine National Authority' runs the government for the Palestinian people. It has been recognized by the United Nations. There is a strip on the south-western part of Israel, which is surrounded on two sides by Israel, on one side by the Mediterranean Sea and on the other side by Egypt. It is known as Gaza Strip. The West Bank and Gaza Strip are commonly known as Palestine.
There is an Israeli government in Israel, while the Fatah party runs the government in the West Bank. Gaza Strip is under control of Hamas. Only the 'Palestine National Authority' is seen as Palestine. But there is a government in one part of it, i.e. the West Bank, but the government has no control over the other part, the Gaza Strip. Hamas continued to rule here from 2007 until the coup. Jerusalem, the holy city of Islam, Judaism and Christianity, is located in the West Bank.
What is the Israel-Palestinian dispute?
The Israel-Palestine dispute is more than 100 years old. After the defeat of the Ottoman Sultanate in the First World War, Britain took control of the part known as Palestine. At that time there was no country by the name of Israel. The area from Israel to the West Bank was known as the Palestinian region. Minorities Jewish and majority of Arabs lived here. The Palestinians were Arabs living here, while there is talk of Jewish people coming from outside.
The dispute between the Palestinians and the Jews started when the international community asked Britain to establish Palestine as a 'national house' for the Jewish people. The Jews believed that this was the home of their ancestors. Palestinian Arabs, on the other hand, wanted to build a new country here called Palestine. He strongly opposed Britain's move to create a new country. In this way the Palestine-Israeli dispute started.
beginning of building a new country
There were atrocities against Jews in Europe between 1920 and 1940. Jews fled from there and started arriving here in search of a homeland. The Jews believed that this was their motherland and that they would create their own country here. During this period, violence also took place between Jews and Palestinians. In 1947, the United Nations called for a vote to create separate countries for Jews and Arabs. The United Nations also said that Jerusalem will be made an international city.
Although the Jews accepted this statement of the United Nations, the Arab people opposed it. For this reason it was never implemented. When this problem could not be solved by Britain, he left from here. Then in 1948, Jewish leaders announced the creation of Israel. The Palestinians opposed this and thus the first war between the two sides began. By the time the ceasefire came into effect, Israel had a large portion.
Controversy over Jerusalem
Arab countries like Jordan and Egypt fought for the Palestinian people. But due to their defeat, Palestine remained limited to a small part. The land that came under the control of Jordan was named West Bank. Whereas the area occupied by Egypt was called Gaza Strip. At the same time, the city of Jerusalem was divided between Israeli security forces in the west and Jordanian security forces in the east. All this was done without any peace agreement.
When war broke out again in 1967, this time Israel captured East Jerusalem as well as the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Israel withdrew from Gaza, but continues to control the West Bank. Israel claims East Jerusalem as its capital, while the Palestinians consider it their future capital. Most Palestinians still live in the West Bank, while some people are living in the Gaza Strip.
The city of Jerusalem is very important for all three religions, Judaism, Islam and Christianity. Al-Aqsa Mosque is present in Jerusalem, which is considered one of the holiest mosques in Islam. There is also the Temple Mount here, where people of Jewish religion pray. At the same time, the Church of the Holy Spirit is present in the quarter of Christians in Jerusalem, which is their main place. This place is central to the story of Jesus Christ's death, crucifixion and resurrection. This is the reason why there has been conflict between people of all three religions regarding this city. The current bloody conflict between Israel and Palestine is not showing any signs of stopping. The Prime Minister of Israel has made it clear that now Israel will not tolerate any conflict. There is no going back recently. At the same time, the Hamas organization, which has influence in Palestine's Gaza Strip, is also not in favor of a ceasefire. Therefore, experts say that the current Israel and Palestine conflict will increase a lot of instability in the Middle East (ie West Asia) and its dire consequences. It is possible that terrorism may again gain momentum in the Middle East due to this conflict. Apart from this, the Iran Nuclear Deal may also be adversely affected.
Reasons for the current conflict between Israel and Palestine
The current conflict between Israel and Palestine began over the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. The conflict that started with the Al-Aqsa Mosque soon took a wider form. While Israel attacked Hamas positions in Palestine's Gaza Strip, Hamas also fired thousands of rockets at Israel. To protect itself from the rockets fired by Hamas from the Gaza Strip, Israel deployed its 'Iron Dome Air Defense System' ( Iron Dome air defense system has been used. It is noteworthy that Al-Aqsa Mosque located in Jerusalem is considered very sacred by the followers of Islam. It is the third holiest site for the followers of Islam along with Mecca and Medina. However, Jews and Christians also belong to this mosque. It is noteworthy that Jerusalem is a holy place for the followers of three religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam). In the year 2016, UNESCO rejected the claim of Jews from Al-Aqsa Mosque. Was. UNESCO had said in its proposal that there is no historical evidence for the claims of Jews on Al-Aqsa Mosque. However, the Jews are not ready to accept such a proposal.
1917 to 2023