Green House Gases Effect
Human beings in order to have a better life style , is changing the climate by increasing global concentrations of green house gases such as carbon dioxide , methane , nitrous oxide , chlorofluoro carbons , etc. By carrying on various activities such as burning coal , oil , natural gas , we are producing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases as by - products more than 6,000 million metric tons annually . Similarly , deforestation and land cleaning is also releasing significant quantities of such gases another 1 to 2,000 million tons a year . The effect is that green house gases are being released in the atmosphere at a rate faster than natural processes can remove them . It has been estimated that since 1860 the concentration ofcarbon dioxide in the atmosphere has risen 30 % from 280 parts per million ( ppm ) to 365 ppm .
The presence of natural amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is relatively insignificant and non - pollutant . But an increase in its quantum and specially a big increase is a matter of serious concern . It has the potential to rival nuclear effect in terms of massive non - reversible damage to the environment . Carbon dioxide and water vapour present in the atmosphere absorb infra red radiation ( 14000-25000 nm ) and effectively block a large fraction of the earth emitted radiation . The radiation so absorbed by carbon dioxide and water vapour is partly re emitted to the earth surface . Thus , earth receives energy from two sources simultaneously - one , from sun directly , and two , from re - emission from carbon dioxide and water vapour . The net result is that earth surface gets heated up and this process of heating up of earth surface is termed as the Green House gases effect or Green House effect . The term Green House effect was first coined by J. Fourier in 1827. The effect is also called Atmospheric Effect global warming of carbon dioxide
These are two factors which are responsible for the green house
1. production of carbon dioxide on a massive scale ; and
2. deforestation .
Carbon dioxide produced by different sources is consumed by water reservoirs and vegetations mostly forests and thereby they serve to maintain a balance in the atmospheric carbon dioxide level . However , due to massive production , it ( CO2 ) remains unconsumed in the atmosphere . More in quantity , it is present in the atmosphere , more it will re - emit the energy to the earth . Thus , energy remains trapped in between the surface of the earth and the layer of carbon dioxide and water vapour in the atmosphere . As the temperature of the earth increases , the evaporation of surface water also increases and it helps in raising the temperature further . Scientists believe that by the year 2050, the temperature of earth will rise by about 3 ° C because by this time the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will double . It has been estimated that increase in surface temperature by 1 ° C can adversely effect the world food production .
Another effect of this phenomenon is the rise in sea levels . Oceans act as reservoir of heat , and hence it could result in rise of sea levels by as much as 2 metres due to expansion of sea water at increased temperatures and also because of partial melting of glaciers , ice - gaps of Greenland , and polar ice caps . This rise of sea levels would threaten many areas especially coastal countries and some 60 island nations like Maldives , Bangladesh , Goa , Madras will face extinction . It is also believed that rising temperature could alter climate radically . Some of the more fertile belts of North America and the Mediterranean could turn arid . Wheat production in India especially in the fertile northern belt may decline .
Other greenhouse gases
Apart from carbon dioxide there are other gases which are responsible for green house effect . They are methane , chlorofluoro , carbons , nitrous oxide and water vapour .
Their relative position is as follows :
Of these remaining gases , hydrocarbons ( CH4 ) and chlorofluro carbons ( CFC ) play significant role . Hydro carbons are produced in huge quantity by rice producing fields and cattle . About 360 million hectares of rice fields and 1.2 billion cattle emit hydrocarbons in India which help in increasing the atmospheric temperature , Chlorofluorocarbon has the . capacity to destroy ozone layer and destroyed ozone layer allows solar flux to reach on the earth unobstructed which ultimately leads to skin burning and rise in temperature . It is believed that one molecule of chlorofluoro carbon can destroy one lakh molecules of ozone . Increasing use of chlorofluoro carbon in air conditioners refrigerators and in other activities may prove dangerous for the atmosphere if no remedial measure is taken in this regard .
Position of Green house gas Emission
USA million tons ; CIS ( formerly USSR ) 690 million tons ; Brazil , 610 million tons ; China , 380 million tons ; India 230 million tons ; Japan 220 million tons per annum . This statistics shows that developed countries are far ahead in producing green house gases except Japan .