CHAPTER 5 - INFORMATION ON CYBER CRIME

In the beginning of certain development era, people were well motivated to attain a good progress in existing technological activities. Since the start of civilization period, the man has been always motivated by need to make better progress in the existing technologies. According to the Department of Defense in America in 1969, the design of parallel super network known as ARPANET (Advanced Research Project Agency) was commissioned. It consisted of more than 50 computers that were connected with web links for the purpose of military operations. These networks steadily grew and then it was called online Internet activity for sharing business regime where communication was done in both modes Cyberspace.


Cyber law is a common term which refers to legal jurisdiction and other ways of preceding regulatory aspects in the internet. It is a constantly generic process. Whenever an internet development strategy follows, numerous amendments are enforced while it is developed, consequently numerous legal issues are also gets developed by illegal activists. In the Internet, Child Pornography is one of the serious Cybercrime and online pedophiles track to indulge children into sex activities using Internet. The traffic hazards, allotment in distributions, dissemination of obscene material, and posting includes pornography with all its filthy exposure constitutes the most important known criminal cyber offence today. This is one which threatens to challenge the development of technology of the younger creation in cybercrime and also leaving permanent scar and damage on the younger generation, if can’t restricted.


Cyber annoyance is a unique form of harassment in cybercrime. Various categories of harassment take place in cyberspace or with the use of cyberspace to attain criminal offence. Harassment can be sexual, religious, racial or other. People who involve perpetuating such harassment are guilty of cybercrimes. Cyber harassment brings us to another related offending area of violation of privacy of netizens. Another Cybercrime against persons is Cyber stalking. Harassments and Stalking are problems that many people especially like women face in their real life. Another category of Cybercrimes is Cybercrime against property in diverse forms. These offences include unauthorized computer trespass through cyberspaces,computer destruction, and broadcast of injurious programs and unofficial tenure of computerized data. Hacking and cracking are in the midst of the largest Cybercrimes known until this day. Hacking is entering a computer system without knowledge and consent of the authorized person, tampering with the precious and confidential data or information. Using one's own programming abilities and also various programmers with the intention to gain access to computer or network through unauthorized access are very serious crimes. Likewise, the dissemination and creation of harmful computer programs or other malicious virus which causes irreparable harm to computer systems is another category of Cybercrime and this Software piracy is also another distinct variety of Cybercrime.


It is perpetuated by many people of cyber world for online who distributes unauthorized and illegal pirated copies of software products. Another category of Cybercrime is against administration. Cyber Terrorism is a kind of crime which is distinct in this category. The increase of Internet has shown that the standard of Cyberspace is used by either group or individual to threaten the worldwide governments and to frighten the citizens of the country. This crime manifests when an individual "cracks" a government or military maintained website. The cyber crime may be broadly classified into three groups . They are

1. Crime against the Individuals

a. Person

b. Property of an individual.


2. Crime against Organization


3. Crime against Society

a. Government

b. Firm, Company and Group of Individuals.

The following are the crimes that have been committed against the followings group:


AGAINST INDIVIDUALS

a. Harassment via electronic mails

b. Dissemination of obscene material.

c. Cyber-stalking.

d. Defamation.

e. Indecent exposure.

f. Cheating.

g. Unauthorized control/access over computer system.

h. Email spoofing.

i. Fraud.


AGAINST INDIVIDUAL PROPERTY

a. Computer vandalism

b. Transmitting virus.

c. Netrepass.

d. Unauthorized access / control over computer system

e. Intellectual Property crimes

f. Internet thefts


AGAINST ORGANIZATION

a. Unauthorized access / control over computer system.

b. Cyber terrorism against the government organization.

c. Possession of unauthorized information.

d. Distribution of Pirate software.


AGAINST SOCIETY

a. Child pornography

c. Indecent exposure of polluting the youth financial crimes.

d. Sale of illegal articles.

e. Trafficking.

f. Forgery.

g. Online gambling.


The Department of Justice for computer crime categorizes the use of computer in cyber crime into three ways as follows:

  1. The computer as a weapon - using a computer as a tool to commit "conventional crime" in the physical world (such as illegal gambling or fraud).

  2. The computer as a target - attacking the other computers (spreading viruses is an example).

  3. The computer as an accessory - using computer a "fancy file cabinet" used to store an ornament like illegal information.

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